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Humanities and Social Sciences

African Women Leadership in the Coffee Sector- Opportunities, Capabilities and Limitations

In this lecture Eva Muthuuri a gender coffee and organizational development consultant shares the results of a project to assess and strengthen the organizational systems of IWCA chapters in Africa. How prepared are African women organizations to engage in the giant coffee global trade? What can be done? This describes the effort of AFCA, African Family Health and UTZ.

Co-creational Strategizing for Peruvian Coffee Farmers

This paper results from a co-creational strategizing for Peruvian farmers in the Alto Mayo region and was realized during my study internship from september 2017 to february 2018. We did a scenario analysis and following strategy development and evaluation. We used the participatory perspective analysis, intuitive logics, a morphological table, an influence matrix, and realized workshops with a heterogeneous group of experts (n=22). As an output we have an environment analysis, three narrative coherent scenarios, three strategies and a strategy evaluation following the Parminedes Approach (Lehr et al., 2017).

The Effect of Third Wave Coffee Towards Coffee Farmers' Sovereignty

For more than 15 years we're familiar with the term "third wave coffee" but we no one can explain more detail what is the third wave coffee is about and what effect it can give in the coffee industry. Hence, this lecture will try to scientifically analyse the third wave coffee as a 'social force' that can potentially bring excitement opportunities in boosting local independent coffee shops' business and the farmer's sovereignty at the same time through direct trade method. The lecture will explain why this scheme is effective for both sides not only for business but also for social development and emancipation.

Service: The Last Frontier in Specialty Coffee

As the quality of products and equipment have improved immensely over the last decade, specialty coffee has become widely available. How important is the human component to get across this amazing product? If your barista makes an amazing espresso but provides no experience, will the perceived taste of that espresso be equally as good? With research results of consumer behaviour and clear examples these questions will be answered and will hopefully start a dialogue from which we can move forward to improve. Ultimately, the aim is to increase sales, so that the coffeefarmers also benefit.

Perspectives on the Role of Coffee in Yemen's War

A roundtable of representatives from the differing stakeholders involved in Yemen's coffee industry and the role they see coffee playing in alleviating the world's worst humanitarian crisis:

Representatives include

1.Willem Boot: Renowned coffee educator/consultant and owner of award-winning Panama Gesha farms - having worked as a consultant for two of Yemen's recent specialty-coffee startups, Willem will share his expert-opinion of the cup quality attributes of Yemeni coffee, and the similarities in future potential between Yemeni and Panama Gesha coffee.

2.Faris Sheibani: Founder of Qima Coffee - as founder of Yemen's most recent specialty-coffee processor and exporter, Faris will share his on-the-ground experience of Yemen as a country, and the challenges for growth. Crucially, as someone who launched a business in the midst of a war, he will share his experience of how the conflict has affected the business, and more importantly, how the business affected the conflict.

3.Irma van Deuren: Dutch Ambassador to the Yemen - to share the experience of what the government's role is in supporting the coffee industry, and what can be done on a policy level within Yemen and in the importing countries to help grow Yemen's coffee industry.

4.Andrew Nicholson: Founder of Rayyan Mill, Yemen's first specialty coffee export business - As an American who lived and worked in Yemen for 6 years, Andrew will share his 'outsider' experience of Yemeni people and the coffee industry. Specifically, he will highlight the story of how the conflict forced him to eventually flee the country

5.Majed Al-rumaim: deputy head of Al Ruwad Cooperative: Majed will share his experience of being a farmer in Yemen, the impact the conflict has had on him and his community, and the hopes they have from coffee.

6.Representative from Spark NGO (TBC): As one of the few NGOs engaged in Yemen's coffee industry, the NGO will present it's perspective on how and why they are involved in Yemeni coffee and the positive impact they have witnessed at the grassroots.

The Wild Origins of Arabica and the World’s Original Coffee Culture

In 1735, the young Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus accepted a position on Hartekamp, an estate outside Amsterdam. One of his tasks was cataloguing the owner’s collection of living and dried plants. Among the later was coffee. Linnaeus rejected its previous classification as a laurel, and created a new genus for it, Coffea, in the large folio work published in 1737 as Hortus Clifforianus.

Linnaeus left Hartekamp, continued working on his taxonomical system, and in 1753 published his botanical magnum opus, Species Plantarum, which included all known plants. He gave coffee its official binominal. To Coffea he added the epithet arabica—“from Arabia.”

A decade later he published Potus Coffea, adding that the plant grew spontaneously in “Arabia felici & Aethiopia.” It was too late. He had named it Coffea arabica not Coffea aethiopica, and Arabia would continue to be regarded as the original source of coffee rather than Ethiopia—a misconception that remained well into the 20th century in the scientific community and still today for many others.

Yet Arabica’s center of origin and diversity is the montane cloud forests of Ethiopia, predominately in cool forests around Kafa a few hundred miles from Addis Ababa. It was from here that Arabica began its spread ,firt to Yemen then around the globe.

And, while Arabs or Sufis generally get credit for first brewing coffee, preparing the decoction was most likely begun by those living here among wild coffee. They utilized every item in the forest, coffee among them. The progression from making coffee leaf infusions and eating the fruits to the drink as we known it today would have been natural, more gradual than wholly accidental (as the story of Kaldi the goatherd tells).

The lecture (with strong visual support) would open with the anecdote of misnaming Arabica and then discuss the variety’s actual origins in the southwest of Ethiopia. It would make the argument that this is world’s original coffee culture.

Empowering Women at Origin: IWCA Chapter Case Studies

The International Women's Coffee Alliance (IWCA) Connects, Empowers and Advances women in coffee. The IWCA's unique approach to create a women in coffee platform provides both a way to connect at the country/community level (e.g. chapters) and across a global network (e.g. 22 countries with chapters, and supporters across Europe, US, Asia, etc). Join us as we discuss the benefits, challenges and current strategic priorities for IWCA Global, IWCA Chapter Rwanda, and an in formation chapter: China. Learn how to support, engage and strengthen our chapters to deliver the mission of IWCA.

Sustainability

The Black Earth Project - How Biochar is Helping Farmers Meet the Challenges of Coffee Production in the 21st Century

This lecture will present data from field trials in Rwanda and Tanzania, highlighting the significant effect that biochar has had on crop yields, input costs, cup quality, soil fertility and moisture retention within smallholder coffee farming communities. It will focus on the theory behind biochar as an agricultural soil amendment, its production methods and application as well as the multiple benefits realized through two pilot projects in East Africa. Data from the projects will be shared in an accessible format, highlighting how biochar has produced positive results in multiple aspects of coffee production.

It will also provide insight into the collaborative process within development projects, reconciling the differences between project design and implementation, using the challenges encountered in the field as an opportunity to improve and expand a project beyond its original goals.

How to Invest in Agroforestry and Carbon Sequestration Projects

Coffee sustainability programs often concentrate on issues at the farm level, while research points to carbon emissions being highest at the consumption level. The SCA has recognized these concerns by specifically recommending the purchase of carbon offsets to help mitigate impacts of our rapidly changing climate. Recognizing these actions, the lecture will explore how carbon emissions throughout the coffee supply chain are measured and sequestered throughout the management of carbon projects, specifically in relation to coffee producing landscapes. Further discussion will explore accessible solutions for roasters and café owners for investing in reforestation and carbon sequestration projects which aim to provide additional income for those living within coffee producing areas.

What Does Coffee Have to do with Wildlife Conservation?

Although about one billion cups are coffee are consumed worldwide daily–most people do not link the dark, velvety liquid in their coffee cup with the diverse and abundant wildlife that inhabit the lands where that coffee is grown. The reality is that coffee farms can provide a refuge for wildlife. Coffee is grown in tropical areas that host high levels of plant and animal diversity. The way that coffee farms are managed varies widely–from a monoculture of coffee plants with little to no shade trees intermixed with the crop (often referred to as “sun coffee”) to farms with many different types of trees and vegetation interspersed between the coffee plants (called “shade coffee”). The former provides little habitat value to wildlife, whereas the latter, which mimics natural forests, provides food, shelter, and habitat for the animals that live in and around these coffee farms. Can coffee farms be managed in a way that protects wildlife habit and the environment, while at the same time producing a viable, profitable crop for the farmers? This talk will explore the current research into this question and the challenges and complexities associated with it.

ID Coffees: Disrupting the Global Coffee Market to Improve the Livelihoods of Smallholder Farmers.

Coffee farmers are paid today the same as 40 years ago, but cost of living has risen by 400%. The current systems of a commodity scheme doesn’t work anymore.

ID Coffees presents a solution for a new sustainable agricultural model that disrupts this system, viewing farmers as people and not as production units.

ID Coffees wants to teach an integrated system, that tracks the value from the producer to the consumer, and validates a market based value of the end product. ID Coffees wants to prove that smallholders have the opportunity to capture a more proportionate amount of value for their product in what can still be a thriving.

To do this, ID Coffees highlights economic, environmental and social resources that add value to coffee, throughout every single step of the supply chain, recognizing that every part of the chain is equally important, and dependent on each other; ID Coffees leverages top of the line technology (blockchain) to add value to farmer’s information, giving them an identity, recognizing their efforts, origin, culture.

ID Coffees uses agriculture as a tool to improve social, environmental and economic conditions that will allow farmers to thrive, while having a positive impact on the environment.

Dr Congo - A Rising Specialty Coffee Orgin

We've been seeing great coffees coming out of DR Congo in the past few years. We would like to dive into the recent development of specialty Coffee in the east of DR Congo: The past, the current situation, the greatest challenges, the perspective and the potential for Specialty Coffee.

We will have the parties involved on the table:

  1. Gilbert Makelele, chairman of CPNCK on Idjwi Island, one of the coops producing fully washed specialty coffee for 5 years now (confirmed)
  2. Jo Vandorpe from Rikolto, the NGO being responsible for some of the profound work in Coffee on the ground (confirmed)
  3. Sara Morrocchi from Vuna Consulting as a moderator (confirmed)
  4. Falcon Specialty Coffee and/or This Side Up Specialty Traders and/or Sara Sara Mason from Shift Social Change
  5. Martin Elwert from Coffee Circle, who initiated the round table and was in Congo in April. He can share his impressions from a direct traders/ roasters perspective (confirmed)

Can Collaboration Result in Transformation of the Coffee Sector?

Non-competitive collaboration is a relatively new term in the world of sustainability and in coffee. Different national and global platforms have been established in recent years involving roasters, traders, exporters, producers and not-for-profit organisations. The aim: having a more coordinated sector that together becomes more sustainable.

National and international platforms in coffee are using concepts such as systemic issues, collaboration on non-competitive matters, sector transformation, public-private partnerships, action networks, amongst others. Nevertheless, it is difficult to understand for many how platforms work, if they should join and if this goes beyond networking events where those interested in sustainability in the coffee sector get together.

From theory to call for action and through practical examples leading to sector transformation, key players and implementers of this new trend will share their view about this new approach and agenda within the coffee sector.

Sustainable Impact Measurement for the Coffee Industry

This lecture will detail part of a case study highlighting experience from a social enterprise within the coffee industry in Kenya, its experience with social impact measurement through the Impact Measurement Services procured. It begins with an explanation of its core business model and social mission, followed by an assessment of its business activities and potential contribution to social outcomes. The case study then details the process the enterprise engaged in to develop a social impact measurement framework and integrate social-impact data collection into its operations. It concludes by highlighting the lessons learned through this engagement with which can benefit the broader inclusive coffee business community. Guiding questions for measuring impact include: -Why measure social impact? -How to measure it? -What kind of data to collect? -What to do with the data? How is it useful? How can data contribute to global priorities and commitments such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? Inclusive businesses across the world face these fundamental questions – whether are multinational corporations, national conglomerates, small or medium-sized enterprises and I believe the findings and learnings from this case study can be useful to share with others within the industry..moving towards building more sustainable coffee enterprises.

Science and Innovation

On the Technological Modernization of the Coffee Post Harvest

The growth of the specialty segment in the coffee industry has increased the awareness of the importance of every step involved in the brewing of the beverage, starting from the adequate selection of the best coffee cherries, to the roasting of the bean. Accordingly, the post-harvest is a crucial part of this process. Traditionally, the post-harvest stages are mainly hand-crafted in most Latin-American coffee producing countries. Although attractive and valuable for the international buyer, such practices represent a challenge for the consistency of the cup quality. Consequently, we are interested in a quality oriented technological modernization of the post-harvest processes. Hence, the technological approaches used in this work considered two special features: the field capabilities of the technology, i.e., the simplicity of doing a future transfer to the producer, and their ability to predict the sensory attributes of the cup. Although different processes were considered, (i.e., crop assessment, cherry sorting, and fermentation), the most extensive studies were performed in coffee cherries collected at different maturity stages and their impact on the sensory attributes. The use of traditional approaches (i.e. color, Brix, equatorial firmness) along with analytical techniques (i.e. GC/MS), and the exploration of novel procedures as the dielectric spectroscopy analysis of the samples as an intermediate alternative were contemplated. The several techniques present good prediction capabilities and field compatibility, and they increase the consciousness of the need of an extended sensory lexicon for this specific sort of methodology.

Understanding 'Body' and the Effect of Roast Profile Modulations on the Sensory Perception of the Coffee Brew

The presentation will cover the work of my master's thesis: "Understanding 'Body' and the effect of roast profile modulations on the sensory perception of the coffee brew". The presentation will cover topics such as roast profile development, Descriptive Sensory Analysis along with the value of supportive instrumental measurements. Attendees will learn about the research that is done in CoffeeMind, and how we aim to bring research to the industry that will aid professionals in their daily work.

Opportunities to Innovate: How Product Designers Can Impact Tea and Coffee Experiences

What drives innovation in product design? Paul Stack, Operations Director at Marco Beverage Systems, believes it is the experience, whether that be for the coffee barista, tea brewer or consumer.

Whilst the circumstances of serving and drinking tea or coffee can vary widely, there is an overall drive from consumers towards quality, taste and energy-efficiency. Today, it's not just about the tea or coffee, it's about sustainability, provenance, quality, production, service and atmosphere: it's about the entire experience.

This emphasis on experience has a direct impact on product design. Brewers demand precision, quality and reliability whilst customers demand taste, efficiency and engagement. In order to fulfill these demands product designers need to consider the entire experience from brewing to drinking. They need to recognise the opportunity for continuous innovation and ensure the tea and coffee systems they design are precise, energy-efficient and cutting-edge.

Shaded Coffee in Brazil: Feasible, Positive and Profitable

Brazil is the main global coffee producer and a country where the vast majority of coffee is produced on full sun systems. Several producing countries rely on the benefits of shade. Brazil production systems lack on biodiversity and on the other several benefits that shade trees bring to the systems, such as carbon, water, nutrient cycling, better temperatures, better coffee quality, etc. This presentation will present (i) the results of a PhD study that shows the benefits of using shade trees in the south of Minas Gerais state, the main arabica producing region in the world. The study presents the advantages of using shade trees and will present the results on productivity, nutrient cycling and coffee quality. It will also present what are the necessary conditions to have a successful use of shade trees in this region of Brazil. The presentation will also present (ii) the recommendations on how to use shade trees for the different coffee production systems in Brazil, considering flat and slope regions, mechanized and unmechanized systems and trees with different purposes, such as trees for to improve soil health and fertility, trees for timber and fruits, etc. It will also be presented some field cases on shaded coffee in Brazil.

Optimise your Roast: How an Unharnessed Thermoanalytical Technique Can Save You Time, Money, and Flavour

Sad but true, roasters end up wasting lots of coffee on optimisation when a new lot arrives. The problem is we currently do not have adequate predictive methods for understanding when the Maillard reaction occurs in a coffee bean from any given origin. So we asked, can a thermoanalytical method called differential scanning calorimetry, a technique normally used in mechanical engineering for polymers, help us? Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) works by measuring how much heat is required to increase the temperature of a material by one degree. With just one bean, DSC lets us see the temperature and enthalpy associated with each exothermic and endothermic transition. With a few bean scans, not only can we predict the first crack, we see exactly at what temperature the Maillard reaction begins and ends. When comparing a calorimetry profile to a typical roast profile, we see these temperatures align with the colour changes and first cracks in a case study of Ethiopian Biftu and a Brazilian Santa Rosa green coffee beans. While still ongoing, the impact of this work could be immense for roasters to save countless rounds of optimisation, ultimately leading to more cost-effective and less wasteful roasting.

Coffee Freshness

Coffee freshness is one of the core values of specialty coffee. But why is preserving the freshness so important? We maybe strive to maximize coffee’s potential to keep its vibrancy as fresh as the day when roasted or we keep coffee fresh to ensure quality and consistency. For any reason that we want to keep coffee fresh, we must first understand the fundamentals freshness to apply them in our daily routine. In this lecture we will explore the topics of freshness covered by the newly released “Coffee Freshness Handbook” to get a better insight into the processes that drive freshness and the impacts of the loss of freshness. Two particular fields will be looked into detail: chemical freshness or loss of coffee aroma during coffee aging, and physical freshness or degassing (also called off-gassing) of coffee, a process of gradual gas release after coffee roasting.

Blending coffee before or after roasting – The science of coffee blending

Coffee roasters either blend green coffee before roasting or they roast first single types of beans separately and blend coffee after roasting. Does it make a difference how we do it? How a coffee roasts if beans of only single origin are roasted compared to roasting a blend? What are the benefits and downsides of doing it either way? This lecture will take a scientific approach to answer some of the questions about coffee blending and explain what we can learn from science about blending.

The Science Behind the SCA Flavor Wheel and the Brewing Control Chart

The SCA Flavor Wheel and the Brewing Control Chart are two important tools used every day by Specialty Coffee experts- but on what foundations were they built? In this lecture, we’ll explore the scientific background of these two tools, how to use them better, and some little known secrets hidden within them. We’ll learn about sensory science, consumer research, and techniques to apply measurement tools to specialty coffee. Finally, we’ll get an update on current research intended to make these tools better.

Coffee Farming and Processing

Towards a Low Carbon Coffee: The Case of Costa Rica NAMA

This paper discusses the best on-farm practices for low GHG emissions coffee growing. The relevance of this issue arises in the context of the Costa Rican Coffee NAMA development. Costa Rican coffee plantations data shows a significant inverse relationship between intensive farming management and coffee GHG emissions. A production function was derived to identify those agronomic practices that enable a more intensive management without increasing the use of fertilizers. As a closing discussion, the authors highlight the importance of analyzing market variables that may affect the implementation of suggested practices.

Specialty Coffee Impacts on Farm Management

This lecture will show the importance and the real meaning of management in everything we do in business and life. It will approach all the steps to be considered when deciding to produce specialty coffees on a farm. It includes strategy planning, risks management and objectives to be achieved. On the operational level, it shows the impacts on farming, the need for a new marketing approach and the changes on the mindset and skills needed to successfully implement the new business model. To conclude, it will show the financial impacts on the farm, the benefits for all the ones involved on the value chain and the future challenges for coffee farming.

Investing in the Future of Specialty Coffee Production: A Blueprint for Smallholder Farmers

In many coffee producing countries, smallholder farmers lack the access to training, finance and support to improve the quality and volume of their production, limiting their potential for income and to specialty price premiums. In the specialty industry, our focus is on quality - finding the best lots we can from producers whose yearly production already scores in the mid-to-high eighties and above. But for the millions without access to inputs and training, we need to rethink how we source coffees, and to invest time, energy and funds into elevating those producers and communities. We have been working for several seasons in multiple origins to devise a program that covers cherry selection and picking, processing and drying, that has born some incredible results. By sharing the blueprint of this program, we hope to be a catalyst for positive change for producers in origin countries, and to start a conversation about how we source coffees as a broader industry.

Roasting and Retailing

Meeting Global/Local Requirements for Safety and Clean Exhaust Air From Coffee Roasting

Attendees will learn about 6 alternative methods for abatement of smoke and odor, the environmental consequences of each and their general acceptance by clean air agencies. Safety and economic issues will also be addressed.

Does the World Need Another Coffee Roastery?

Patrik Rolf started April Coffee Roasters in Copenhagen in the end of 2016. One of the hardest decisions to make was if a new Coffee Roastery would be able to make a difference in a world where new Roastery's seems to be opening up every week. This is an insight in the start-up process of April and an honest reflection on the role of a Coffee Roastery in today's world.

Decaf is often an overlooked category in coffee. But increasingly, consumers of decaf are younger, and they expect high-quality coffee without caffeine. Swiss Water will share trends & data from primary and secondary research sources to highlight growth opportunities for decaffeinated coffee for roasters & retailers, and also provide some insights into achieving quality throughout the supply chain, including roasting and brewing.

Starting A Coffee Shop But Feeling Unqualified?

Many of us have a dream to open up our own retail shop, yet have no idea where to begin. There are few resources online, and few owners that are available to talk about their story and how they got to where they’re at. That’s very much how we felt when we were three friends who wanted to start a coffee shop with no coffee experience at all. We’ll walk through how we got started, and helpful resources that moved us forward along the way. We’ll share how a simple idea sparked an adventure into the world of craft coffee, to learning how to write a business plan, look for locations, build out our space, open and successfully get through our first year. Although every story is different, we hope to provide an inside look into our journey, the contributing elements of our success, and a touch of the day-to-day reality of being a coffee shop owner in today’s third-wave coffee scene.

Maintaining Profitability During Minimum Wage Increases

Minimum wage has been at historic low levels across the globe for some time. As government agencies scramble to catch up, they are being forced to institute dramatic escalations rather than slow and steady increases. While wages need to be adjusted this is having a dramatic impact on specialty coffee retailers and roasters. Cities such as Seattle (up 50% in 3 years), London (41% in 4 years) and Hong Kong (72% in 8 years) are just examples of what is happening across the globe.

Equitable wages are important and wage increases are inevitable. Direct cost of labor is most visible on income statements. However, as increasing minimum wages are happening around the globe, retailers will also see the impact in the cost of coffee, milk and other commodities that are labor intensive.

Planning is the best course of action for roasters and retailers. Treating workers fairly while offering a total compensation inclusive of benefits is vital. This seminar will take you through ways to look at the industry to understand the long-term effects of minimum wage increases, tried and true methods of planning and offering a compensation package that helps become an employer of choice.

Coffee data as business intelligence - using your data to improve quality, consistency and control.

Specialty coffee’s artisanal customer face is real and supported by a complex supply chain and highly specialized production. These things create and collect a lot of information. Understanding what can be collected and how it can help coffee businesses is simpler than people think and is also the first step towards gaining real benefits. What’s more, ‘business intelligence’ is already accessible to businesses of all sizes and is easy to use and inexpensive. It helps remove guesswork for beginners and delivers new insights for experts. This lecture presents how this can be done with a focus on roastery information.

To Roast or Not to Roast - That is the retail question.

A deconstruction of the intricacies involved with making a decision to add roasting to either an existing retail store or a business plan for a new one. Topics covered are: Economic breakdown, Space considerations, Smoke abatement considerations and developing the staff to manage and roast in a well designed coffee program.

The Future of the Barista Guild

Members of the Barista Guild of America and the Barista Guild of Europe will speak on unification and what the hopes and dreams of the future state of a globally minded Barista Guild. Things effects baristas differently than producers, and whats important to a barista in the USA vs Europe my look different. We want to speak on what brings us together and how we plan to tackle and stay ahead of the cultural differences we may be faced with.